Goldner, 58, who initially joined Hasbro in 2000 and was promoted to chief executive in 2008, had publicly confirmed last year that he'd been receiving treatment for prostate cancer since 2014.
Rich Stoddart, an independent director on Hasbro's board, was named as interim CEO after Goldner announced his medical leave earlier this week.
Stoddart has served on Hasbro's board since 2014 and previously worked as the CEO of the marketing company InnerWorkings, as well as the advertising agency Leo Burnett Worldwide.
“Since joining the company more than two decades ago, Brian has been the heart and soul of Hasbro,”Stoddart said in a statement. “As a charismatic and passionate leader in both the play and entertainment industries, Brian’s work brought joy and laughter to children and families around the world.”
Hasbro is one of the best known multinational toy companies, owning the trademarks and products of Kenner, Parker Brothers and Milton Bradley among others.
Notable Hasbro products include Transformers, Monopoly, Nerf, Twister, G.I. Joe, Power Rangers and My Little Pony, among numerous other popular toy lines.